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Téma: A KÁLIUM-PROBLÉMA (The potassium-problem)

Department for Geology and Landscape Protection
H-1121 Budapest, Költõ u. 21. Phone: (361)1562-133 Fax: (361) 1757-457 Telex: (61)226-115


The Potassium Problem
(Supervision of expertises and recommendations of Agroanalysis Scientific Society)

1.) The National Authority for Nature Conservation completes the earlier opinion of MERP ( i.e. Ministry for Environment and Regional Policy ) related tu suggestion for solution of so-called „Potassium Problem” introduced by Centre for Environment Protection and Economic Efficiency of Agroanalysis Scientific Society (nungarian abbr.:ATT) and its president, Mr. András Tejfalussy. ( The earlier opinion of MERP was written according to the instruction of Dr. Zoltán Illés, deputy secretary of state about the study „Economic Environment Protection by Mr. A. Tejfalussy ( and ATT ), 27th Sept. 1990. The supervisory completion becomes to be necessary considering the difficulty and increasing importance of the solution of the
potassium problem.

2.) The plants have a potassium demand, but it has benefical effect is if available for the root system in fixed form and its required quantity is only solved by the root excretion. The potassium - as several other chemicals - is poisonous in reactive, easy-available form and quantity in soil. In the course of the bioevolution the regulation of the potassium uptake developped under the condition of the sparingly available potassium form, therefore the plant are perfectly unprotected against the harmful effects of thet easy-available potassium forms in fertilizers.

3.) In the countries, where the agriculture has no deficit, the potassium fertilization is almost absent (e.g. in China, Egyp, etc) or it is used in the case of the droppingirrigation - since so damageous effects as its inhibitory influence on water, nitrogen or other nutrient acquisition can be neglected according to artifical regulation proved by automatic equippment instead of plant metabolism. (However it can be occured that the deficit of plant kultivation does not mean trouble - as e.g. in Izrael, where the independent food production means a strategic question of great importance.)

4.) The fact published by the AGROANALYSIS Scientific Society is also verified by non-Hungarian press, that the potassium fertilizers are incorrectly interpreted by all the text books as yield increasing nutrient, since just the potassium fertilizers can be very damageous and harmful for both the food crops and the animals or the men consumed the food crops in question.

5.) It is really necessary to draw the attention of all the responsible organizations and authorities to that the potassium has not produced only the plant cultivation of deficit, but it is dangerous, noxious to thet human health! Everybody has to know the following informations about the potassium: - having unsualy composed food, the daily potassium input of the human organism must be in the range of 50-150 mval, wich quantity can be processed by healthy kidney, opposing that this function is less facilitated than in the case of sodium; - an K-input of 20-40 mval/hour or 280 mval/day can injure the living cells, and this injury harmfully contributes the poissoning process of potassium excess because the injured cell-structures release newer potassium ions into the intercellular liquid; - the importance of the last statement is supported by the following facts:

(a) the 98 % of the potassium quantity is usualy in the living cells within the human body and the potassium solved in the intercellular liquid (which can frequently be more critical in the respect of potassium toixicity) is only 2 % in a healthy organism;
(b) the normal potassium contcentration range is 4-4,5 mval/l in the intercellular liquid, the lower values or the higher ones are injurious for the living cells, evenmore 7-10 mval/l in he intercellular liquid within the heart leads to fibrillation of the wall of heart-chamber or to stop of the heart in diastole phase.

(c) the general weakness of muscles, the mistakes of motion coordination and the troubles of sense occur, if the potassium poissoning is milder than in the (b) situation;

(The sodium never produces similar pharmacological symptomes! However, the potassium-sodium pump funtioning in any living systems principally increases this type of the sensibility created by the bioevolution process of million years!) - the potassium concentration of intracellular liquid can also excess the critical, dangerous level when the potassium content of the food is normal, e.g. due to the consumption of the normal daily potassium quantity according to a higher rate than the critical 20-40 mval/hour.

The potassium fertilizing can multiplz (e.g.double-fold or more) the potassium content of the food crops, consequently i can also be noxious in this way.

6.) The horses become easily tired and depressed if they graze the grass in sping, wich has an higher potassium content in the intensive phase of its growth according to the spinger warming up. There are information about the tetany of the cattles wich consume the green wheat of high potassium content (so called wheat poisoning).

7.) The nutrition of potassium excess causes the udder cancer of the mouse.

8.) It is sad fact, reported by Hungarian Institute for Ornithology, that last year numerous birds (Bombycilla garrulus) parished due to some granulates of potassium fertilizer in the City Park of Budapest. The odd phenomena feelling experiments proved the later, the individuals belong to the species Goturnix japonica parished after having 3 g of potassium chloride.

9.) Because of the potassium release process in the dead cells of the organism prevent the indication of the potassium poissoning in the case of dead man or animal according to the 5.) item, since in the lack of potassium poissoning the potassium concentration of the intracellular liquid must also be increased in any dead organism than in living one.

10.) The controll of potassium-using has bean prevented in any case excepting the measurement of the exchangeable potassium quantity is in the soil. The potentially poissoning, exchangeable potassium is measured under the abnormal calibration and the reverse interpretation wich uses inadequate upper limit values according to the principle of „the more, the better”.

11.) A small excess of the potassium consumption can harmfully increase the potassium level in the intercellular liquid of animal and human organism concludely not only the plants unprotected. The poissoning potassium in groundwater and canal reached so high concentration, that the fruit trees already died e.g. in 1967, too (attested by exact results).

12.) Principaly, the absence of adaquate calibration of interaction results and test processes or the lack of the filtration of the random disturbances in the biotests lead to the ambiguous aducation program - teaching the conference materials of the international potash syndicates - wich serves the interest of these syndicates at the universities and the high scools. No other measuring system - but Antirandom Interference Monitors (AIM) of AGROANALYSIS SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY -is able to indicate the previous mistakes in the publishing and teaching activity of the education and research, so far.

It is regrettable fact, that without any regard to the scientific publication by prof. I. Lang (1962-1963) the enormous quantities of the potassium salts -like so called fertilizers were imported and applied year by year. That practicallz means concealing the natural availability in most of our soils. All of these caused thefollowing „misterieous results” :

- our biotopes have been extremly poisoned by remarkable excess of the potash and the fertilizer losses induced by it;

- due to the unbalanced plant mineral nutrition the primary agricultural poducts (e.g. grains) are too expensive and unhealthy as well as the secondary ones (e.g. meat);

- nowdays it is obvious for the people, the degradation of the natural and human environment, the decreasing biodiversity, the bad water quality often indicates irreversibile, harmful effects and these are the highest price for these mistakes, indeed.

September 6th, 1991. Budapest.

Dr. Gyula Biczók head of department




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